Values of Our Times: Contemporary Axiological Research in China

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East Asian philosophical thought began in Ancient China , and Chinese philosophy begins during the Western Zhou Dynasty and the following periods after its fall when the " Hundred Schools of Thought " flourished 6th century to BCE. These philosophical traditions developed metaphysical, political and ethical theories such Tao , Yin and yang , Ren and Li which, along with Chinese Buddhism , directly influenced Korean philosophy , Vietnamese philosophy and Japanese philosophy which also includes the native Shinto tradition.

During later Chinese dynasties like the Ming Dynasty — as well as in the Korean Joseon dynasty — a resurgent Neo-Confucianism led by thinkers such as Wang Yangming — became the dominant school of thought, and was promoted by the imperial state. In the Modern era, Chinese thinkers incorporated ideas from Western philosophy.

Modern Japanese thought meanwhile developed under strong Western influences such as the study of Western Sciences Rangaku and the modernist Meirokusha intellectual society which drew from European enlightenment thought. The 20th century saw the rise of State Shinto and also Japanese nationalism. The Kyoto School , an influential and unique Japanese philosophical school developed from Western phenomenology and Medieval Japanese Buddhist philosophy such as that of Dogen. African philosophy is philosophy produced by African people , philosophy that presents African worldviews, ideas and themes, or philosophy that uses distinct African philosophical methods.

Modern African thought has been occupied with Ethnophilosophy , with defining the very meaning of African philosophy and its unique characteristics and what it means to be African. Another early African philosopher was Anton Wilhelm Amo c. Contemporary African thought has also seen the development of Professional philosophy and of Africana philosophy , the philosophical literature of the African diaspora which includes currents such as black existentialism by African-Americans. Modern African thinkers have been influenced by Marxism , African-American literature , Critical theory , Critical race theory , Postcolonialism and Feminism.

Indigenous American philosophy is the philosophy of the Indigenous people of the Americas.


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There is a wide variety of beliefs and traditions among these different American cultures. Another widely shared concept was that of Orenda or "spiritual power". According to Peter M. Whiteley, for the Native Americans, "Mind is critically informed by transcendental experience dreams, visions and so on as well as by reason.

Another feature of the indigenous American worldviews was their extension of ethics to non-human animals and plants. In Mesoamerica , Aztec philosophy was an intellectual tradition developed by individuals called Tlamatini 'those who know something' [87] and its ideas are preserved in various Aztec codices. The Aztec worldview posited the concept of an ultimate universal energy or force called Ometeotl which can be translated as "Dual Cosmic Energy" and sought a way to live in balance with a constantly changing, "slippery" world.

The theory of Teotl can be seen as a form of Pantheism. Aztec ethics was focused on seeking tlamatiliztli knowledge, wisdom which was based on moderation and balance in all actions as in the Nahua proverb "the middle good is necessary". The Inca civilization also had an elite class of philosopher-scholars termed the Amawtakuna who were important in the Inca education system as teachers of religion, tradition, history and ethics.

Philosophical questions can be grouped into categories.

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These groupings allow philosophers to focus on a set of similar topics and interact with other thinkers who are interested in the same questions. The groupings also make philosophy easier for students to approach. Students can learn the basic principles involved in one aspect of the field without being overwhelmed with the entire set of philosophical theories.

Various sources present different categorical schemes. The categories adopted in this article aim for breadth and simplicity. These five major branches can be separated into sub-branches and each sub-branch contains many specific fields of study. These divisions are neither exhaustive, nor mutually exclusive. A philosopher might specialize in Kantian epistemology, or Platonic aesthetics, or modern political philosophy. Furthermore, these philosophical inquiries sometimes overlap with each other and with other inquiries such as science, religion or mathematics.

Metaphysics is the study of the most general features of reality , such as existence , time , objects and their properties , wholes and their parts, events, processes and causation and the relationship between mind and body. Metaphysics includes cosmology , the study of the world in its entirety and ontology , the study of being. A major point of debate is between realism , which holds that there are entities that exist independently of their mental perception and idealism , which holds that reality is mentally constructed or otherwise immaterial.

Metaphysics deals with the topic of identity. Essence is the set of attributes that make an object what it fundamentally is and without which it loses its identity while accident is a property that the object has, without which the object can still retain its identity. Particulars are objects that are said to exist in space and time, as opposed to abstract objects , such as numbers, and universals , which are properties held by multiple particulars, such as redness or a gender.

The type of existence, if any, of universals and abstract objects is an issue of debate. Epistemology is the study of knowledge Greek episteme. They also ask: What is truth? Is knowledge justified true belief? Are any beliefs justified? Putative knowledge includes propositional knowledge knowledge that something is the case , know-how knowledge of how to do something and acquaintance familiarity with someone or something. Epistemologists examine these and ask whether knowledge is really possible.

Synonyms and antonyms of axiological in the English dictionary of synonyms

Skepticism is the position which doubts claims to knowledge. The regress argument , a fundamental problem in epistemology, occurs when, in order to completely prove any statement, its justification itself needs to be supported by another justification. This chain can go on forever, called infinitism , it can eventually rely on basic beliefs that are left unproven, called foundationalism , or it can go in a circle so that a statement is included in its own chain of justification, called coherentism.

Rationalism is the emphasis on reasoning as a source of knowledge. It is associated with a priori knowledge , which is independent of experience, such as math and logical deduction. Empiricism is the emphasis on observational evidence via sensory experience as the source of knowledge. Value theory or axiology is the major branch of philosophy that addresses topics such as goodness, beauty and justice. Value theory includes ethics, aesthetics, political philosophy, feminist philosophy, philosophy of law and more.

Ethics, or "moral philosophy", studies and considers what is good and bad conduct , right and wrong values , and good and evil. Its primary investigations include how to live a good life and identifying standards of morality. It also includes meta-investigations about whether a best way to live or related standards exists.

The main branches of ethics are normative ethics , meta-ethics and applied ethics. A major area of debate involves consequentialism , in which actions are judged by the potential results of the act, such as to maximize happiness, called utilitarianism , and deontology , in which actions are judged by how they adhere to principles, irrespective of negative ends. Aesthetics is the "critical reflection on art, culture and nature. An example from art theory is to discern the set of principles underlying the work of a particular artist or artistic movement such as the Cubist aesthetic.

Political philosophy is the study of government and the relationship of individuals or families and clans to communities including the state. It includes questions about justice, law, property and the rights and obligations of the citizen. Politics and ethics are traditionally linked subjects, as both discuss the question of how people should live together. Many academic disciplines generated philosophical inquiry. The relationship between "X" and the "philosophy of X" is debated.

Richard Feynman argued that the philosophy of a topic is irrelevant to its primary study, saying that " philosophy of science is as useful to scientists as ornithology is to birds. The topics of philosophy of science are numbers , symbols and the formal methods of reasoning as employed in the social sciences and natural sciences. Logic is the study of reasoning and argument. An argument is " a connected series of statements intended to establish a proposition. For example:. Deductive reasoning is when, given certain premises, conclusions are unavoidably implied.

Because sound reasoning is an essential element of all sciences, [] social sciences and humanities disciplines, logic became a formal science. Sub-fields include mathematical logic , philosophical logic , Modal logic , computational logic and non-classical logics. A major question in the philosophy of mathematics is whether mathematical entities are objective and discovered, called mathematical realism, or invented, called mathematical antirealism.

This branch explores the foundations, methods, history, implications and purpose of science. Many of its sub-divisions correspond to a specific branch of science. For example, philosophy of biology deals specifically with the metaphysical, epistemological and ethical issues in the biomedical and life sciences. The philosophy of mathematics studies the philosophical assumptions, foundations and implications of mathematics.

Values of Our Times

Some philosophers specialize in one or more historical periods. The history of philosophy study of a specific period, individual or school is related to but not the same as the philosophy of history the theoretical aspect of history, which deals with questions such as the nature of historical evidence and the possibility of objectivity. Hegel's Lectures on the Philosophy of History influenced many philosophers to interpret truth in light of history, a view called historicism.

Philosophy of religion deals with questions that involve religion and religious ideas from a philosophically neutral perspective as opposed to theology which begins from religious convictions. Issues include the existence of God , the relationship between reason and faith , questions of religious epistemology , the relationship between religion and science , how to interpret religious experiences , questions about the possibility of an afterlife , the problem of religious language and the existence of souls and responses to religious pluralism and diversity.

Some philosophers specialize in one or more of the major philosophical schools, such as Continental philosophy , Analytical philosophy , Thomism , Asian philosophy or African philosophy. The ideas conceived by a society have profound repercussions on what actions the society performs. Weaver argued that ideas have consequences. Philosophy yields applications such as those in ethics — applied ethics in particular — and political philosophy. Progressive education as championed by Dewey had a profound impact on 20th-century US educational practices.

Descendants of this movement include efforts in philosophy for children , which are part of philosophy education. Clausewitz 's political philosophy of war has had a profound effect on statecraft , international politics and military strategy in the 20th century, especially around World War II. Logic is important in mathematics , linguistics , psychology , computer science and computer engineering. Other important applications can be found in epistemology , which aid in understanding the requisites for knowledge, sound evidence and justified belief important in law , economics , decision theory and a number of other disciplines.

The philosophy of science discusses the underpinnings of the scientific method and has affected the nature of scientific investigation and argumentation. Philosophy thus has fundamental implications for science as a whole. For example, the strictly empirical approach of B. Skinner 's behaviorism affected for decades the approach of the American psychological establishment. Deep ecology and animal rights examine the moral situation of humans as occupants of a world that has non-human occupants to consider also.

Aesthetics can help to interpret discussions of music , literature , the plastic arts and the whole artistic dimension of life. In general, the various philosophies strive to provide practical activities with a deeper understanding of the theoretical or conceptual underpinnings of their fields.

Some of those who study philosophy become professional philosophers, typically by working as professors who teach, research and write in academic institutions. Recent efforts to avail the general public to the work and relevance of philosophers include the million-dollar Berggruen Prize , first awarded to Charles Taylor in Germany was the first country to professionalize philosophy. The doctorate of philosophy PhD developed in Germany as the terminal Teacher's credential in the mid 17th century.

In the United States, the professionalization grew out of reforms to the American higher-education system largely based on the German model. Within the last century, philosophy has increasingly become a professional discipline practiced within universities, like other academic disciplines.

Historiography

Accordingly, it has become less general and more specialized. In the view of one prominent recent historian: "Philosophy has become a highly organized discipline, done by specialists primarily for other specialists. The number of philosophers has exploded, the volume of publication has swelled, and the subfields of serious philosophical investigation have multiplied. Not only is the broad field of philosophy today far too vast to be embraced by one mind, something similar is true even of many highly specialized subfields. The end result of professionalization for philosophy has meant that work being done in the field is now almost exclusively done by university professors holding a doctorate in the field publishing in highly technical, peer-reviewed journals.

While it remains common among the population at large for a person to have a set of religious, political or philosophical views that they consider their "philosophy", these views are rarely informed by or connected to the work being done in professional philosophy today.

A time of reflection on Chinese thinking and philosophy

Furthermore, unlike many of the sciences for which there has come to be a healthy industry of books, magazines, and television shows meant to popularize science and communicate the technical results of a scientific field to the general populace, works by professional philosophers directed at an audience outside the profession remain rare. Both works became ' New York Times best sellers. Many inquiries outside of academia are philosophical in the broad sense. Novelists, playwrights, filmmakers, and musicians, as well as scientists and others engage in recognizably philosophical activity.

Although men have generally dominated philosophical discourse, women have engaged in philosophy throughout history. Women philosophers have contributed since ancient times—notably Hipparchia of Maroneia active c. More were accepted during the ancient , medieval and modern eras, but no women philosophers became part the Western canon until the 20th and 21st century, when some sources indicate that Susanne Langer , G. Anscombe , Hannah Arendt and Simone de Beauvoir entered the canon. In the early s, some colleges and universities in the UK and US began admitting women , producing more female academics.

Nevertheless, U. Department of Education reports from the s indicate that few women ended up in philosophy, and that philosophy is one of the least gender-proportionate fields in the humanities. In the early s, the Canadian Philosophical Association noted a gender imbalance and gender bias in the academic field of philosophy. While other areas of the humanities are at or near gender parity, philosophy is actually more overwhelmingly male than even mathematics. The film The Matrix makes numerous references to philosophy including Buddhism , Vedanta , Advaita Hinduism , Christianity , Messianism , Judaism , Gnosticism , existentialism and nihilism.

Its premise resembles parts of Plato 's Allegory of the cave , Descartes's evil demon , Kant 's reflections on the Phenomenon versus the Ding an sich , Zhuangzi 's " Zhuangzi dreamed he was a butterfly ", Marxist social theory, and the brain in a vat thought experiment. Many references to Baudrillard 's Simulacra and Simulation appear in the film, although Baudrillard himself considered this a misrepresentation.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Philosophy disambiguation. The rational investigation of the truths and principles of being, knowledge, or conduct. Plato Kant Nietzsche. Buddha Confucius Averroes. Main article: Western philosophy. See also: Islamic philosophy and Middle Eastern philosophy.

Main articles: Eastern philosophy and Indian philosophy. Main article: Jain philosophy. Play media.

Values of our times | Li Deshun

Main article: Hindu philosophy. Main articles: Chinese philosophy , Korean philosophy , and Japanese philosophy. Main article: African philosophy. Main article: Indigenous American philosophy. Main article: Metaphysics. Main article: Epistemology. Main article: Ethics. Main article: Aesthetics. Main article: Political philosophy. Main article: Logic. Main article: Philosophy of science. See also: Metaphilosophy and History of ethics. Further information: Philosophical progress and List of years in philosophy. Main article: Philosophy of religion. Main article: Women in philosophy.

Main article: Outline of philosophy. Philosophy portal. Retrieved 22 August Faculty of philosophy. University of Cambridge. Retrieved 28 March Oxford Living Dictionaries. Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd. Journal of Consciousness Studies. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.


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  • Chicago, Ill. Each of the three elements in this list has a non-philosophical counterpart, from which it is distinguished by its explicitly rational and critical way of proceeding and by its systematic nature. Everyone has some general conception of the nature of the world in which they live and of their place in it. Metaphysics replaces the unargued assumptions embodied in such a conception with a rational and organized body of beliefs about the world as a whole.

    Everyone has occasion to doubt and question beliefs, their own or those of others, with more or less success and without any theory of what they are doing. Epistemology seeks by argument to make explicit the rules of correct belief formation. Everyone governs their conduct by directing it to desired or valued ends. Ethics, or moral philosophy, in its most inclusive sense, seeks to articulate, in rationally systematic form, the rules or principles involved.

    The Oxford Handbook of Skepticism 1st ed. Oxford University Press. A Bradford Book. Retrieved 25 April Online Etymological Dictionary. Retrieved 19 March The English word "philosophy" is first attested to c. The Scientific Revolution 1st ed. University Of Chicago Press. Zalta, Edward N. Beauty Spring ed. Loeb Classical Library.

    Retrieved 27 April Against Method 4th ed. Courier Corporation.

    Translation of «axiological» into 25 languages

    Retrieved 14 May Kant: Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press. Ancient Greek philosophy was divided into three branches of knowledge: natural science, ethics, and logic. Problems in Philosophy: The Limits of Inquiry 1st ed. The Retrieval of Ethics 1st ed. Lectures on the History of Philosophy: Greek philosophy. Clarendon Press. Retrieved 22 April Scott Fitzgerald; in political theory from Plato to Hobbes and Locke […] The texts or authors who fill in the blanks from A to Z in these, and other intellectual traditions, constitute the canon, and there is an accompanying narrative that links text to text or author to author, a 'history of' American literature, economic thought, and so on.

    The most conventional of such histories are embodied in university courses and the textbooks that accompany them. This essay examines one such course, the History of Modern Philosophy, and the texts that helped to create it. If a philosopher in the United States were asked why the seven people in my title comprise Modern Philosophy, the initial response would be: they were the best, and there are historical and philosophical connections among them.

    On Hinduism. Journal of Asian Studies. Two of these will be mentioned briefly. From a philosophical standpoint, the views of the Buddhists and Jains are equally important. Young Pearson Prentice Hall.

    Religions of India: An Introduction. The Jains. Psychology Press. Jainism: The World of Conquerors. Motilal Banarsidass. The Lives of the Jain Elders. Comparative Religion. That which is: Tattvartha Sutra. Harper Collins. Theravada Buddhism. Buswell Jr. Lopez Jr. The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism. Princeton University Press. Isaeva Shankara and Indian Philosophy. State University of New York Press. Chad Meister and Paul Copan ed. Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Religion.

    International Philosophical Quarterly. Concise Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. This is particularly the case with Vedanta. A Hindu Perspective on the Philosophy of Religion. Palgrave Macmillan. The Stone is a forum for contemporary philosophers and other thinkers on issues both timely and timeless. If irony is the ethos of our age — and it is — then the hipster is our archetype of ironic living. The hipster haunts every city street and university town. Manifesting a nostalgia for times he never lived himself, this contemporary urban harlequin appropriates outmoded fashions the mustache, the tiny shorts , mechanisms fixed-gear bicycles, portable record players and hobbies home brewing, playing trombone.

    He harvests awkwardness and self-consciousness. Before he makes any choice, he has proceeded through several stages of self-scrutiny. The hipster is a scholar of social forms, a student of cool. He studies relentlessly, foraging for what has yet to be found by the mainstream. He is a walking citation; his clothes refer to much more than themselves. He tries to negotiate the age-old problem of individuality, not with concepts, but with material things. He is an easy target for mockery. However, scoffing at the hipster is only a diluted form of his own affliction.

    He is merely a symptom and the most extreme manifestation of ironic living. For many Americans born in the s and s — members of Generation Y, or Millennials — particularly middle-class Caucasians, irony is the primary mode with which daily life is dealt. One need only dwell in public space, virtual or concrete, to see how pervasive this phenomenon has become.

    Advertising, politics, fashion, television: almost every category of contemporary reality exhibits this will to irony. Take, for example, an ad that calls itself an ad, makes fun of its own format, and attempts to lure its target market to laugh at and with it. It pre-emptively acknowledges its own failure to accomplish anything meaningful. No attack can be set against it, as it has already conquered itself. The ironic frame functions as a shield against criticism. The same goes for ironic living. Irony is the most self-defensive mode, as it allows a person to dodge responsibility for his or her choices, aesthetic and otherwise.

    To live ironically is to hide in public. Somehow, directness has become unbearable to us. How did this happen? It stems in part from the belief that this generation has little to offer in terms of culture, that everything has already been done, or that serious commitment to any belief will eventually be subsumed by an opposing belief, rendering the first laughable at best and contemptible at worst.

    This kind of defensive living works as a pre-emptive surrender and takes the form of reaction rather than action. Life in the Internet age has undoubtedly helped a certain ironic sensibility to flourish. An ethos can be disseminated quickly and widely through this medium. Our incapacity to deal with the things at hand is evident in our use of, and increasing reliance on, digital technology.

    Prioritizing what is remote over what is immediate, the virtual over the actual, we are absorbed in the public and private sphere by the little devices that take us elsewhere. Nostalgia needs time. One cannot accelerate meaningful remembrance. While we have gained some skill sets multitasking, technological savvy , other skills have suffered: the art of conversation, the art of looking at people, the art of being seen, the art of being present. Our conduct is no longer governed by subtlety, finesse, grace and attention, all qualities more esteemed in earlier decades.

    Inwardness and narcissism now hold sway. Born in , at the tail end of Generation X, I came of age in the s, a decade that, bracketed neatly by two architectural crumblings — of the Berlin Wall in and the Twin Towers in — now seems relatively irony-free. The grunge movement was serious in its aesthetics and its attitude, with a combative stance against authority, which the punk movement had also embraced. In my perhaps over-nostalgic memory, feminism reached an unprecedented peak, environmentalist concerns gained widespread attention, questions of race were more openly addressed: all of these stirrings contained within them the same electricity and euphoria touching generations that witness a centennial or millennial changeover.

    But Y2K came and went without disaster. For Gen Xers, it was a kind of diligent apathy. We actively did not care. Our archetype was the slacker who slouched through life in plaid flannel, alone in his room, misunderstood. And when we were bored with not caring, we were vaguely angry and melancholic, eating anti-depressants like they were candy. FROM this vantage, the ironic clique appears simply too comfortable, too brainlessly compliant. Ironic living is a first-world problem. For the relatively well educated and financially secure, irony functions as a kind of credit card you never have to pay back.

    In other words, the hipster can frivolously invest in sham social capital without ever paying back one sincere dime. Obviously, hipsters male or female produce a distinct irritation in me, one that until recently I could not explain. They provoke me, I realized, because they are, despite the distance from which I observe them, an amplified version of me.

    I, too, exhibit ironic tendencies. For example, I find it difficult to give sincere gifts.