Geotechnical Design Manual M 46-03.02

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Carl by Edward 4. Aerial photos from different years can give an indication of the history and previoususeofthesite. Acompletesetofairphotosfromtheoldestavailable tothemostrecentcangiveanindicationoftheprevioussiteuse,aswellas signifcantchangesintopographyorlandformsduetothemorerapidgeologic processessuchasstreamchannelmigration,beacherosion,landslides,or rockfall. Remote Sensing. SatelliteimagerysuchasLandsatcanoftenbeusedfor regionalinterpretationsofgeologicfeaturesanddrainagepatterns.

LiDAR LightDetectionAndRanging mappingusesalasertomeasuredistances tospecifcpointsandiscapableofrapidlygeneratingdigitalelevationdata similartothatobtainedbytraditionalphotogrammetrytechniques. OneoftheadvantagesofLiDARisthatvegetationcanberemoved fromthedatabasetorevealabareearthmodel. Landformsthataretypically obscuredbywesternWashingtonsheavyvegetationareoftenapparenton thebareearthview.

Similartechnologyusinglandbasedequipmentis alsobecomingavailable. Thesetechniquesarebeingmorewidelyusedfor mappingrivermorphologyandfoodplains,andgeologichazardsuchas landslidesandmaybeavailablefromlocalagencies. Soil Sur veys. Theresultsofthesurveysarepresentedin theformofreportsandmapswhichcommonlycoveracompletecounty. The reports,ingeneral,containadescriptionoftheaerialextent,physiography, relief,drainagepatterns,climate,andvegetation,aswellasthesoildeposits oftheareacovered. Themapsshowtheextentandderivationofthevarious deposits.

Thesurveysgivesomeinformationontheslopeinclinationand erosionhazardsthatmaybecommon. Thereportsalsoprovideengineering classifcationsofthenearsurfacesoilandsometimesinformationonthe suitabilityofthesoilsforvariousconstructionusesaswellasanindicationof thegeneraldrainagecharacteristics. Thesurveysareregionalinaspectandonlyprovideinformationonthetop severalfeetofsoil. Theyshouldnotbeusedformorethanprovidingsome preliminarysoilinformation. Other Sources. WSDOTsunstableslopedatabaseshouldbereviewedfor anyhistoricproblemswithslopeinstabilityorrockfallproblems.

Hydrogeologicsurveyscanprovideregionalinformationonthepresence anddepthofgroundwater. ScientifcarticlesandreportsongeologyinWashingtonmayalsobeavailable, throughtheDNRanduniversitylibraries. Files aregenerallyavailableforexistingbridges,retainingwalls,orsignifcantcuts andembankments. Materialsreportsandsourcereportsthatwerepreparedfor alignmentstudiesmightalsobeavailableeitherfromtheHQGeotechnical DivisionortheRegionMaterialsEngineer.

Manylogs canbeobtainedfromtheirwebsite. Thesoildescriptionsaregenerallynot veryreliable;however,informationongroundwaterlevelsandpresenceof bedrockcanbeobtainedfromthem. TheCityofSeattlehasdevelopedanexistingboringdatabaseinconjunction withtheUniversityofWashington. Thedatabaseincludesboringscompleted forlocalagencyprojectsaswellasdataprovidedbyconsultants. Thedatabase isavailableon-lineandincludesamapshowingexplorationlocationsalong withPDFimagesoftheboringlogs. Notethatareviewof landuserecordsorreportsthatdescribeprevioussiteuses,especiallythose thatcouldidentifythepotentialforhazardouswastewillbecontainedina separatereportproducedbytheEnvironmentalAffairsOffce EAO ortheir consultant.

Notethatidentifcationofpotentialhazardoussubsurfacematerialscould affectthesubsurfaceinvestigationapproachforthegeotechnicaldesign. Thisissuemayneedtobeconsidered,therefore,intheplanningforthe geotechnicalsubsurfaceinvestigation. Thegeotechnicalinvestigation approachwillalsoneedtobeadjustedduringthesubsurfaceinvestigation ifpotentiallyhazardousmaterialsareretrievedduringthesubsurface investigation,bothforcrewsafetypurposesandtocomplywithenvironmental regulations.

If,duringtheoffcerevieworduringsubsequentsubsurfaceinvestigation potentiallyhazardousmaterialsarediscovered,theEAOshouldbenotifed. TheEAOwillinvestigatethepotentialforhazardouswaste,defningitsnature andextent,andhowtoaddressitfortheproject. Othersiteusesmayalsoaffectthesiteinvestigationapproachandpossiblythe timingoftheinvestigation. Especiallyimportantiswhetherornotthesiteis historicallyorarcheologicallysignifcant,andwhetherornotthereispotential forartifactstobediscoveredatthesite. Theinvestigationforthistypeof previoussiteuseshouldbeconductedpriortobeginningthegeotechnicalsite investigation.

Ingeneral,theregionprojectoffceisresponsibleformaking surethatthisinvestigationiscarriedout. Whilethegeotechnicaldesignerisnotresponsibletospecifcallycarry outadetailedinvestigationregardingthepotentialtoencounterhazardous subsurfacematerialsorarcheologicalartifacts,thegeotechnicaldesigneris responsibletoknowwhetherornotsuchinvestigationshavetakenplace,to communicatethisinformationtotheFieldExplorationManager FEM ,and toadjustthegeotechnicalsiteexplorationprogramaccordingly.

HeadquartersFinal Recordshasthemostcompletecollectionofconstructionrecords. GenerallytheRegionMaterialsEngineerwillbetheprimarycontactto obtainanyconstructionrecordsfromtheRegionProjectoffces. TheHQ GeotechnicalDivisionalsohassomeconstructionrecords. Allthreeoffces shouldbecontactedforavailableconstructionrecords. ConsultationwithWSDOTprojectengineerswhomayhavecompleted workonsimilarstructuresinthesamegeneralareashouldbeutilizedtogain generalinformationonthesoil,foundation,andgroundwaterconditions. Previousexperiencemayalsorevealacceptablefoundationconditionsforthe problemsathand.

Manyofthecountyandcityagenciesalsomaintainrecordsofinvestigations andconstruction,andthesearegenerallyavailablethrougheachagency. Thereviewofavailabledatashouldbedonepriortothefeldreconnaissance toestablishwhattolookforatthesite. Thefeldreconnaissanceshouldalso bedonewiththepreliminaryplansinhand. Crosssectionsprovidedwith thepreliminaryplansshouldbefeldchecked. Thecrosssectionsareoften generatedbyphotogrammetryandmaynotaccuratelyrepresenttheexisting groundsurface.

Ifavailable,theprojectdesignengineer,structuralengineer andfeldexplorationsupervisorshouldalsoparticipateinthesitevisit. Notethelocation,typeanddepthofanyexistingstructuresorabandoned foundationsthatmayinfringeonthenewstructure. Inspectanynearby structurestodeterminetheirperformance.

Ifsettlementorlateralmovement issuspected,obtaintheoriginalstructureplansandarrangetohavethe structuresurveyedusingtheoriginalbenchmark,ifpossible. Forwatercrossings,inspectstructurefootingsandthestreambanksup anddownstreamforevidenceofscour. Riprappresentaroundthebridge foundationmayindicateapastscourproblem,couldimpactthelocation oftestboringsandwillneedtobedealtwithduringconstruction. Takenote ofthestreambedmaterial. Oftenlargecobblesandbouldersareexposedin thestreambed,butnotencounteredintheboringsornotedontheboringlogs. Thebouldersareanindicationofunexpectedsubsurfaceobstructionstodeep foundationinstallation.

Checkaccessfor explorationequipmentandmakeaninitialdeterminationofwhattypeof equipmentmightbebestsuitedtothesiteconditions.

Compaction of Soil - Lecture 31 - Geotechnical Engineering

Ifsitepreparationis necessary,notethetypeofequipment,suchasabulldozer,thatmaybeneeded fordrillingequipmentaccess. Notepotentialproblemswithutilitiessuch asoverheadandundergroundpower,siteaccess,privatepropertyorother obstructions. Whileutilityclearanceswillneedtobeobtainedbeforethe subsurfaceexplorationbegins,thelocationswillinfuencewhereexplorations canbelocated. Alsonotetraffccontrolneedstoaccomplishthefeldexplorationprogram, considering the practical aspects of the proposed drilling plan with regard toimpacttothepublic. Ifboringsaretobelocatedinastreambed,the reconnaissanceshouldnotethesizeofthebargebestsuitedforthejob,details ofanchoring,depthofwater,locationsforlaunchingthebarge,etc.

Notes shouldbemadeastowhichtypeofdrillingisbestsuitedtothesite. Also notepotentialproblemswithboringssuchasshallowgroundwatertable, looseorheavingsands,cobblesandboulders,etc. Availabilityofwater,if coringormudrotarymethodsareanticipated,shouldbedetermined. Special samplingequipmentneeded,suchasundisturbedsamplingequipment, shouldbenoted. Thisevaluationoffeldinvestigationlogisticsshouldbe donewiththeassistanceofthegeotechnicalfeldexplorationmanageror supervisorstotakeadvantageoftheirexpertiseinworkingwithgeotechnical explorationequipmentandinconductingageotechnicalfeldinvestigation seeWSDOTGDMSection3.

However,noteproximityofresidencesandbuildingsforpossible diffcultiesduetonoiseandotherdisturbancesduringthesubsurface exploration. Localresidentscanoftenprovidesomeinformationonthehistory ofthesite. Compare the topography of the site with that shown on maps and try to confrmtheassumptionsmadeduringtheoffcereviewconcerningthesite geology. Observeandnotenaturaloccurringexposuressuchasriverbanks, naturalescarpments,quarries,highwayorrailwaycutsandrockoutcrops. Noteanddescribethe typeandamountoffllthathasbeenplacedonthesite.

For unstableslopesorlandslidesnotethelengthandwidthoftheareaaffected. Noteanyotherindicationsofinstabilitysuchaspistolbuttingoftrees, hummockyterrainorsprings. Full investigationoftheseissueswillrequirereviewofthesiteconditionswell aboveandbelowthefacilityalignment,andmayextendontoprivate property.

Rightofentrymaybeneededinsuchcasestocompletethesite reconnaissance. Ifsteepslopesmustbeaccessedtofullyinvestigatethe site,safetyissueswillneedtobeaddressedbeforeattemptingtoaccessthe area,oralternativemeansofgettingintothepositiontomakethenecessary observationsshouldbeconsidered e.

Handholesorprobesmaybeusefultoobtaininformationondepthofsoft soils. Photographsarevaluablerecordsofthesitevisitandshouldbelabeledwith theapproximatestationing,directionofview,date,andabrieftitle. Photos shouldbeobtainedofallthesitefeatureslistedaboveandoftheprobable explorationlocations. Therecordshouldlistanddescribesignifcantsitefeaturesasdiscussed abovealongwithapproximatestationing. Thesectionsthatfollow expandontheconsiderationsrequiredforthepreparationofthesubsurface explorationplan.

Typicalproperties andconditionstobeevaluatedincludepermeability,compressibility,shear strength,thelocationofgroundwaterandthepresenceandmagnitudeof artesianpressures,ifpresent. Thetype,location,sizeanddepthoftheexplorationsandtestingare dependentuponthenatureandsizeoftheprojectandonthedegreeof complexityandcriticalnatureofthesubsurfaceconditions.

Ingeneral,it isjustifabletospendadditionalmoneyonexplorationsandrelatedtesting andengineeringbeyondthestandardsasidentifedinthismanualaslong assuffcientsavingscanberealizedintheprojectconstructioncosts. Considerationshouldbegiventothesmallcostofaboringinrelationtothe foundationcost. Yet theknowledgegainedfromtheboringmaypermitamoreeffcientdesignthat mayalloweliminationofoneormorepilesforthatstructure.

Considerationshouldbegiventohowsensitivethestructureorembankment istovariationsinsubsurfaceconditionswhenplanningthegeotechnical investigation. Embankmentscangenerallytolerateseveralinchesof settlementwhileastructuremaybelimitedtolessthanoneinch. Embankment loadsarespreadoverawideareawhilestructureloadsareconcentrated.

Someconsiderationshouldbegiventotheamountofriskthatunknown soilconditionscouldbringtotheproject e. Therearetimeswhen soilconditionsmaybeunderstoodfairlywellforthegeotechnicaldesign,but thatunknownsoilconditionscouldaffectthecostoftheproject. Generally ifrockisencounteredatthefoundationgradeinaboringatapierlocation, thelocationandqualityoftherockshouldbeexploredattheothersideofthe pier.

Ifrockmayfallofftowardstheriver,makesuretheboringsexplorethe rockcontactonthefrontsideofthefooting. Whileengineeringjudgmentwillneedto be applied by a licensed and experienced geotechnical professional to adapt theexplorationprogramtothefoundationtypesanddepthsneededandto thevariabilityinthesubsurfaceconditionsobserved,theintentofspecifc requirementsprovidedinthechaptersidentifedaboveregardingtheminimum levelofexplorationneededshouldbecarriedout. Eventhebestandmostdetailedsubsurface explorationprogramsmaynotidentifyeveryimportantsubsurfaceproblem conditionifconditionsarehighlyvariable.

Thegoalofthesubsurface explorationprogram,however,istoreducetheriskofsuchproblemstoan acceptableminimum. Inalaterallyhomogeneousarea,drillingoradvancingalargenumberof boringsmayberedundant,sinceeachsampletestedwouldexhibitsimilar engineeringproperties. Furthermore,inareaswheresoilorrockconditions areknowntobeveryfavorabletotheconstructionandperformanceofthe foundationtypelikelytobeused e. Testboringsaretypicallytheprimarymeansusedtoobtaintheneeded subsurfaceinformationandsamplesforlaboratorytesting. However,other meansofobtainingsubsurfacedatashouldbeconsideredtoprovideamore completepictureofthesubsurfaceconditionsandtohelpreduceexploration costs.

Coneprobescanbearapidandcosteffectmeanstoreducethenumberof conventionalborings,yetprovideadditionaldatathatcannotbeobtainedfrom conventionaltestholedrillingandsampling. Conedatacanbeespecially effectiveindefningthefnerstratigraphyofgeologicunits,toobtainpore pressuremeasurementsandin-situpermeabilityandshearwavevelocities, as well as obtain data that can be directly correlated to a variety of soil properties. However,theconeisnotveryusefulindensetoverydensesoilsor soilswithlargergravelsandcobbles duetoinabilitytopenetratesuchsoils.

Theconecanbeespeciallyusefulincomparisontoconventionalboringswhen heavingsandsarepresent. Ifconeprobesareusedtosupplementasubsurface explorationprogram,someconventionaltestholedataarenecessaryto correlatereadingsfromtheprobetophysicalsamplesofthesoil sincethe coneisnotcapableofretrievingphysicalsoilsamples,aswellastoobtainsoil samplesforlaboratorymeasurementofsoilproperties. Similarly,in-situtestingdevicessuchasthepressuremeterorvaneshearcan beconductedtosupplementconventionaltestholedrillingtoobtainspecifc in-situproperties. Forexample,thepressuremeterisusefulforobtaining in-situsoilstiffnesspropertiesthatcanbeusedtomoreaccuratelyassess settlementorlateralloadresponseoffoundations.

Shearvanetestingcan beusefultoobtainin-situundrainedshearstrengthofsoftcohesivesoils. Geophysicaltechniquesshouldalsobeconsideredtofllinthegapsbetween testholesandtopotentiallyreducethecostofthegeotechnicalsubsurface investigation. Geophysicaltechniquesareespeciallyusefulfordefning geologicstratigraphy,andcanbeusefultoidentifyburiederosionchannels, detailedrocksurfacelocation,overallrockquality,buriedobstructionsor cavities,etc.

Geophysicaltestsshallbeselectedandconductedinaccordancewith availableASTMstandards. ForthosecaseswhereASTMstandardsarenot available,otherwidelyaccepteddetailedguidelines,suchasSabatini, et al. Geophysicaltestingofferssomenotableadvantagesandsomedisadvantages thatshouldbeconsideredbeforethetechniqueisrecommendedforaspecifc application.

Theadvantagesaresummarizedasfollows: Manygeophysicaltestsarenoninvasiveandthus,offer,signifcantbenefts incaseswhereconventionaldrilling,testingandsamplingarediffcult e. Ingeneral,geophysicaltestingcoversarelativelylargearea,thus providingtheopportunitytogenerallycharacterizelargeareasinorder tooptimizethelocationsandtypesofin-situtestingandsampling. Geophysicalmethodsareparticularlywellsuitedtoprojectsthathave largelongitudinalextentcomparedtolateralextent suchasfornew highwayconstruction.

Geophysicalmeasurementassessesthecharacteristicsofsoilandrock atverysmallstrains,typicallyontheorderof0. Forthepurposeofobtainingsubsurfaceinformation,geophysicalmethods are relatively inexpensive when considering cost relative to the large areas overwhichinformationcanbeobtained. Itisdiffculttodevelopgoodstratigraphicproflingifthegeneral stratigraphy consists of hard material over soft material or resistive materialoverconductivematerial. Resultsaregenerallyinterpretedqualitativelyand,therefore,onlyan experiencedengineerorgeologistfamiliarwiththeparticulartesting methodcanobtainusefulresults.

Specializedequipmentisrequired comparedtomoreconventional subsurfaceexplorationtools. Sinceevaluationisperformedatverylowstrains ornostrainatall , informationregardingultimatestrengthforevaluationofstrengthlimit statesisonlyobtainedbycorrelation. Thereareanumberofdifferentgeophysicalin-situteststhatcanbeused forstratigraphicinformationanddeterminationofengineeringproperties. Samplingrequirementswilldependonthetypeofsoilorrockencountered andthenatureoftheprojectelementtobedesignedandtheproperties necessaryforthegeotechnicaldesignofthatprojectelement.

Properties neededfordesign,andhowthosepropertiescanbestbeobtained,should beidentifedaspartofthegeotechnicalinvestigationplanningprocess. Forexample,ifsofttostiffcohesivesoilsarepresent,anadequatenumber ofundisturbedsampleswillneedtobeobtainedtoperformthelaboratory shearstrengthandconsolidationtestingtodefnetheshearstrengthand compressibilitypropertiesneededfordesign,consideringthepotential variabilityofthesepropertiesineachgeologicunit,aswellastoaccountfor problemsamplesthatarediscoveredtonotbeusablefortesting.

Thedegree ofsampledisturbanceacceptableshouldalsobeconsidered,aswellasthe abilityofthespecifcsamplingtechniquetoretainthehighqualityundisturbed soilsneeded seeWSDOTGDMChapter3regardingsamplingtechniques. Thedisturbedsamplingtechniqueselectedtoobtainrepresentativesamples forclassifcationandcharacterizationwilldependonthesizeofthebigger particlesanticipated. Forexample,SPTsamplingisgenerallynotsuitable forsoilsthatcontainalargepercentageofmediumtocoarsegravelinsuch cases,aBeckerhammersamplermaybemoreappropriate.

Ifthegravelly soilsofinterestarecloseenoughtothesurface,itmaybepossibletoobtain morerepresentativebagsamplesthroughtestpittechniques. Ifdetailedstratigraphyisneeded,forexample, toidentifypotentialunstablezonesorsurfaces,Shelbytubesamplesortriple tubecoringtechniquescanbeusedtogetacontinuoussoilorrocksamplefor visualassessment.

Fieldinstrumentationplanningisalsocrucialtothedevelopmentof acompletefeldexplorationprogram. Groundwatermeasurementin termsofitslocation,pieziometrichead,extentacrossthesite,gradient, andconnectiontosurfacewaterfeaturesistypicallyimportantformost geotechnicaldesigns,anditsmeasurementshouldalwaysbeapartofany geotechnicalinvestigationplanningeffort. Eliminationofgroundwater measurementfromthegeotechnicalinvestigationplanmustbejustifed bystrongevidencethatthereisnogroundwaterpresentwithinthedepths ofinterest,orthatthepresenceofgroundwaterwillhavenoeffectonthe geotechnicaldesignoftheprojectelementoritsconstruction.

Notethat measurementofgroundwaterinthedrilledholeatthetimeofdrillingis generallynotconsideredtobeadequateforgroundwatermeasurement. In granularsoilwithmediumtohighpermeability,reliablegroundwaterlevels cansometimesbeobtainedinthedrilledhole. Ataminimum,groundwater levelsshouldbeobtainedatcompletionofdrillingafterthewaterlevel hasstabilizedand12hoursafterdrillingiscompleted.

However,sincethe presenceofdrillingfuidsandthetimerequiredforgroundwaterlevelsto reachequilibriumafterdrillingcanbesignifcant,measurementsofground waterattimeofdrillingcanbemisleading. Itisgenerallynecessaryto installsometypeofpiezometertomakesuchmeasurements. Theextent ofthegroundwatermeasurementprogramshallbecapableofevaluating bothdesignandconstructabilityneeds notethatthisdoesnotmeanthatthe piezometersneedtobeavailableforuseduringconstructionoftheproject element,butonlymeansthatconstructabilityissuescanbeassessed.

Seasonal ortidalvariationsinthegroundwaterlevelsshouldalsobeassessedtothe extentfeasiblegiventheprojectdesignschedule. Continuousmonitoringof groundwatercanbeachievedbyusingelectricalpiezometerssuchasvibrating wiretypeinconjunctionwithdigitaldataloggers. Additional information ongroundwatermonitoringaspartofthefeldinvestigationisprovided inMayne,etal. Otherfeldinstrumentationmaybeneededaspartofageotechnical investigationforcertainsituations. Forexample,whereinstabilityis anticipated,inclinometersplacedatstrategiclocationstodefnethepotential failuresurfaceshouldbeinstalled.

Theinclinometershouldbeinstalleddeep enoughtobefrmlyfxedinstablesoil. Settingupsurveycontrolofkey pointsonthestructureaspartofthegeotechnicalinvestigationcanalsobeof useinsomecases. Theoffcerequestingthegeotechnicalservices shouldalsoclearlyunderstandwhataffectapproximationsinthesitedata couldhaveonthegeotechnicaldesign,andtheneedtogobacklaterandredo someofthegeotechnicalworkiftheimpactofsuchapproximationsonthe geotechnicaldesignissignifcant. Anygeotechnicalconcernsthatarelikely todevelop,ortheneedforcontingencies,shouldalsobecommunicatedat thistime.

Communicationbetweenthegeotechnicaldesignerandtheproject offceisessentialthroughoutthegeotechnicalinvestigation. Thegeotechnical designerisdefnedasthegeotechnicalengineerorengineeringgeologistwho has been given responsibility to coordinate and complete the geotechnical designactivitiesfortheproject. Earlycommunicationofpotential complicationsduetogeotechnicalconcernswillresultinmorecosteffective andconstructibledesigns.

Anyimpacttoprojectscheduleresultingfromthe geotechnicalinvestigationasitprogressesshouldalsobecommunicatedtothe projectoffcepromptly. Itisthegeotechnicaldesignersresponsibilitytomake surethatthiscommunicationtakesplace. Once the geotechnical investigation plan has been developed and approved seeWSDOTGDMChapter1 ,aproposedbudgetforfeldexploration, laboratorytestingandengineeringshouldbedevelopedandprovidedtothe projectoffce. Thebasisofthisbudget,includingadescriptionofthescope ofworkasthegeotechnicaldesignerunderstandsit,thedateandsource ofthesitedatauponwhichthegeotechnicalinvestigationplanwasbased, andthepotentialforchangestotheplanthatcouldoccuroncesomeofthe geotechnicalsubsurfacedatabecomesavailablemustbeclearlydocumented inthelettertransmittingthegeotechnicalprojectbudget.

Theproposedlocationsoftheboringsshouldhavebeencheckedfor accessibilityduringthesitereconnaissance normally,thedrillingsupervisor willcheckforthis. Itmaybenecessarytoshiftthelocationsofsome explorationsduetolocalconditions,suchasutilities,encounteringobstacles suchasbouldersduringdrilling,orchangesinengineeringplans. The revisedlocationsoftheseholesshouldbecarefullyplottedonthelayoutby thedrillinspector,andthereasonfortheshiftshouldbenotedonthefeld log.

Sometoleranceinlocationoftheexplorationsshouldbeexpectedand communicatedtothedrillcrew. Theamountoftolerancewilldependonthe topographyatthesite,theexpectedsoilconditions,stageofexploration, andtypeofstructure. Forexample,forexplorationsmadeduringtheproject defnitionphaseorforcutslopedesign,exactlocationsmightnotbecritical.

Ontheotherhand,ifthetestboringisbeingmadetodefnetherockcontact beneathaspreadfooting,movingtheboring10feetmightbetoomuch. Ifthe locationoftheexplorationiscritical,itmaybejustifedtomobilizeadifferent typeofdrillrig. Costsincurredduringconstructionbecauseofdiffering siteconditionsaregenerallymuchgreaterthanthecostofanadditional mobilization. Thedrillinginspectorshouldbe briefedastowhatsubsurfaceconditionstoexpectandshouldcontactthe geotechnicaldesignerifanysignifcantchangesareencountered.

Itmaybe necessarytoadjustthesamplingintervalsofdepthofexplorationsoradd explorations,ifthesubsurfaceconditionsaredifferentthanexpected. Ifit becomesapparentthatsuchchangesthatwillsignifcantlyimpacttheproject budgetorschedule,itisimportanttoimmediatelycontacttheprojectoffce todiscussthesituationwiththem,andcometoanagreementonthebest courseofaction,butwithoutimpactingtheprogressofthefeldcrewsin accomplishingthework.

Theinformationneededonthedrillingrequestformshouldbeascomplete aspossibletomakeeffcientuseoftheexplorationcrewstime. Theyneedto knowhowtogettothesite,wheretodrill,whatequipmenttotake,andwhat diffcultiestoexpect. Thedrillcrewstimeshouldbespentindrillingand samplingandnotinsendingbackformoreequipment.

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Belowisapartiallistofinformationtobeincludedonthefeldexploration requestbythegeotechnicaldesigner. Otherinformationshouldbeincludedas appropriate. FieldExplorationCheckList: Typeofexplorationsrequired. Forexample, explorationsinareaswheresoilconditionsareunknownorproblemsoils areexpectedtobepresentshouldbeperformedinthefrststagesofthe program,toallowforadjustmentinsamplingintervalsoradditional explorationstobeadded. Attachfeldlogsfromnearbyexplorations, ifavailable. Ifatallpossible,thedepthofallexplorationsshouldbeestimatedprior todoingthefeldwork.

However,thatisnotalwayspracticalinsituations wherenoprevioussubsurfaceinformationisavailableandsomecriteria shouldbestatedontheexplorationplan. Acriteriarecommendedfor typicaluseistohaveaminimumof30feetofmaterialwithblowcounts of30blowsperfootorgreater,oraminimumof10ftintobedrock,and fordeepfoundations,theboringdepthshouldbeatleastasdeepasthe estimatedfoundationdepthplus20ft. Coordination of drilling inspector and geotechnical designer regarding whenandatwhatstagesofthefeldexplorationcommunicationshould takeplace.

Thefeldexplorationsupervisorisresponsibletoobtainthefollowing information,eitherthroughfeldreviewoftheinvestigationplan,orwiththe helpoftheappropriateRegionoffces: Equipmentrequiredandaccessneeds Knownpermitsrequiredandregulations Knownutilities Specialtraffccontrolrequirements Costoffeldexplorationservices. Coordinationbetweenthefeldexplorationsupervisorandthegeotechnical designerisnecessarytoimplementthefeldinvestigationprogram,tomake surethattherearenologisticalproblemswiththeplanimplementation. Soilsand Foundations Workshop Reference Manual.

FederalHighwayAdministration, U. It is organizedbyactivitiesandpoliciesinvolvedpriorto,during,andafter exploration. Thegeotechnicaldesignerassignedtothe projectisresponsibletocoordinatewiththeRegionProjectOffce or WSFprojectOffce topreparethewayforthefeldexplorationcrewsto implementthefeldexplorationprogram.

Specifcally,thegeotechnicaldesignershoulddothefollowingbefore submittingthefnalfeldexplorationrequesttotheFEM: 1. Makesurethattheprojectoffcehasprovidedadequatesitedatatolocatetest holesandkeyprojectfeaturesonpaperandinthefeld. Makesurethattheprojectoffcehasaskedfor preferablyobtained an environmental assessment of the site to determine whether or not there is potentialtoencounterhazardoussubsurfacematerials.

Thegeotechnicaldesigner isresponsibletohaveabasicknowledgeofprevioussiteuseaswell. Makesurethattheprojectoffcehasaskedfor preferablyobtained an archeological assessment of the site to determine if there is potential to encounterNativeAmericanorotherartifacts. Coordinatewiththeprojectoffcetomakesureanyright-of-entrysneeded areobtainedfortheproposeddrilling. Coordinatewiththeprojectoffcetomakesurethenecessarypermitsare obtained especiallywithregardtowetlandsandotherenvironmentally sensitiveareas. CoordinatewiththeFieldExplorationSupervisor FES whowillbe assignedtotheproject,andtheprojectoffce,toconductajointfeld reviewtoevaluateaccessandotherissuesrelatedtosettingupand fnalizingthefeldexplorationprogram.

Notethattoobtainpermitsandright-of-entry,apreliminaryfeldexploration planwilllikelybeneededbytheregion orWSF beforethefnalexploration planiscompletedandturnedin. Therefore,thedevelopmentofthefeld explorationplanmayrequireasomewhatiterativeprocess. Onceenough feldexplorationplandetailshavebeendeveloped,thegeotechnicaldesigner shouldrequestthatthosewhowillbedirectlynegotiatingwithlocalowners toobtainright-ofentry ifneeded invitetheFEMorFEStoassistinthose negotiations.

Ifthegeotechnicaldesignerrecognizes,eitherthroughanenvironmental assessmentorthroughgeneralknowledgeoftheprevioussiteuse,thatthere isapotentialtoencounterhazardousmaterialsduringthe geotechnicalfeld exploration,itisimportantthatthegeotechnicaldesignermaketheFEM awareofthisassoonaspossibleinthedevelopmentoftheexplorationplan. Thepotentialtoencounterhazardoussubsurfacematerialscancompletely changetheapproach,cost,andschedulingforthesiteexplorationactivities.

Apreliminaryfeldexplorationplanisalsoneededforuseasthebasisfor conductingthejointfeldreviewmentionedabove. Thisfeldreviewshould beusedtodeterminehoweachindividualexplorationsitewillbeaccessed, thetypeofdrillequipmentbestsuitedforthesite,areasforutilitylocates, requiredtraffccontrol,andtoidentifyanypermit,right-of-entry,and environmentalissues.

Adjustmentstothespecifclocationsofexploration pointscanbemadeasneededduringthefeldreviewtoaddressthe aboveissues. Duringthefeldreview,theFESwillstaketheboringsiftheyhavenotalready beenlocatedandifright-of-entry ifneeded hasbeenobtained.

Geotechnical Design Manual: M April

TheFES shouldalsoassessthetraffccontrolneedsfortheexplorationworkatthis time. Afterstakingborings,theFESisresponsibleforcallingallutility locatesaminimumof48hourspriortothestartofexplorations. Oncethefnalfeldexplorationplanhasbeencompleted,theFEMwill provideacostestimatetothegeotechnicaldesignertocompletethefeld explorationplan. Oncetheexpenditureforthefeldexplorationhasbeen authorized,thegeotechnicaldesignermustthennotifytheFEMtocommence withthefeldexploration. Oncetheexplorationplanhasbeenexecuted,any subsequentrequeststomodifytheplanshouldbeprovidedinwritingbythe geotechnicaldesignertotheFES.

TheFESwillrespondwithanupdated estimateandscheduleforrequestedplanchange. Iftheconsultantneedschangestothe feldexplorationplan,thegeotechnicaldesignerisresponsibletoprovide inputtotheFESorFEMastotheacceptabilityofthechanges. While the geotechnical designer is responsible to coordinate between theprojectoffceandtheFEMorFESregardingpermits,right-of-entry, hazardousmaterialsassessmentandarcheologicalevaluationforthesite, andadequatesitedatatolocatetheexplorationpointsforexplorationplan developmentandforlocationinthefeld,theprojectoffceisultimately responsibletoperformthesetasksorseetoitthattheyareperformed.

Thedrillinspectorwilltheninitiateameeting withthegeotechnicaldesignertodiscusstheobjectivesandanyparticulars oftheexplorationplan. EithertheFESorthedrillinspectorshouldnotifythe geotechnicaldesigneroftheanticipatedstartdateoftherequestedwork. Thedrilleris requiredtocompleteadailydrillreportattheendofeachworkday.

Thedrilling inspectorisalsorequiredtocompleteadailyinspectorsreportattheendof eachworkday. Atthecompletionofeachworkweekthesereportsshallbe turnedintotheFESandputintheprojectfle. Further,caremustbeexercised duringdrillingwithhollow-stemaugerstomitigateforheaveandlooseningof saturated,liquefablesoils. Thissamplerislinedwith2-inch I. Thesamplerisintendedforstifferfne-graineddeposits thanwhatwouldbesuitableforShelbytubes. Down-the-holehammersarenotallowedforuseinperformingStandard PenetrationTests. For moisture-criticalgeotechnicalissues,aportionofthesampleshouldbeplaced inamoisturetinandsealedwithtape.

Rockcores shouldbeplacedincoreboxesfromhighesttolowestelevationandfromleft toright. Corebreaks madetoftthecoreintheboxmustbeclearlymarkedonthecore. All soil androcksamplesshouldberemovedfromthedrillsiteattheendeachdayof drillingandtransportedtothelaboratoryassoonaspossible. Subsequentmonitoringisatthediscretionofthegeotechnical designer. Priortoconstructingapiezometer,theboringshouldbethoroughly purgedofdrillfuidsusingclean,potablewater. Thegeotechnicaldesigner shouldprovidedesigninputontheconstructionofthepiezometer,specifcally regardingthescreenedintervalandseals.

Followingcompletion ofthepiezometer,thepiezometershouldberepeatedlysurgedorbailed todevelopthewellscreenandoptimizehydraulicconnectivitywiththe formation. Furthermore,thepiezometershouldbesealedwithintheaquiferof interest,nothydraulicallylinkingmultipleaquifers. Extremecareshouldbe exercisedaroundopenexcavations,andaccesswithinthemshouldadhere toWashingtonAdministrativeCode WAC sectionsand Priortode-mobilizing,thedrillinspectorshouldensurelocationinformation e.

If exact location information is unavailableuponcompletionoffeldactivities,asketchofeachexploration locationshouldbemadeindicatingrelationshiptoobservablefeatures i. Thisinformationshouldbeprovidedwiththe feldlogstothegeotechnicaldesigner. Inadditiontoprovidingfeldlogsfor allexplorations,requireddocumentationfortestpitsshouldincludeascale drawingoftheexcavationandphotographsoftheexcavatedfaces.

Sampling methodsandinsitumeasurementdevicessuchaspocketpenetrometers shouldalsobedocumented. Unlessotherwiserequestedbythegeotechnicaldesigner,allexplorations andresourceprotectionwells piezometersandinclinometers shallbe properlydecommissionedpriortoconstructionasperDOErequirements WAC,andRCW TheconstructionProject EngineerisresponsiblefornotifyingtheFEMatleast72hourspriorto requiredtimefordecommissioning. Uponcompletion,thedrillinginspectorshalltransmitrecoveredsamplesto theGeotechnicalDivisionlabandprovideboththeoriginalcopyofthefeld notesandafnishedlogforallexplorationstothegeotechnicaldesigner.

Drill Drill No. Job Yard O Serv. Remarks Inspector Reg. ThevarietyoferosionandsedimentcontrolBMPsmayvarybetweenthetwo scenarios,butthephilosophyofminimizingsitedisturbance,reducingwaste materials,trappingsediment,andstabilizingthesite,remainsthesame. Atnotimeshalldrillingslurry orcuttingsbeallowedtoenterWaterBodiesoftheStateofWashington. Ifnot,the slurrywillslowlybeinfltratedintothegroundusingsurroundingvegetated areasandthecuttingswillbestoredanddisposedofoff-site.


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RemovalofsedimentcontrolBMPswillbeperformedimmediatelyafter drillingiscompleted. If signifcantsoildisturbanceoccursduringdrilling,theBMPswillbeleftin placeuntilthesiteisstabilizedwithgrassormulch. TheSupervisorwilldiscuss therequirementsofthispermitwiththecrewpriortoeachproject. All of theprovisionsineachHPAwillbestrictlyfolloweduntilthecompletionof saidproject. Thedrillshaftwillbeflledwithbentoniteclaytopreventmixingofaquifers andeliminatingtherouteforsurfacecontaminants.

Reportspilltoyour supervisor,astheyareawareofreportingrequirements.

Ifamajorspill morethan1gallon towateroccurs,controlthesourceofthe leakifpossibleandcontacttheWashingtonStateEmergencyManagement Division andtheNationalResponseCenter Thencontactyour supervisor,astheyareawareofreportingrequirements. Thetestvalues i. However, sinceallequationsandcorrelationsrelatedtouseofblowcountvalues areapproximate,soundengineeringjudgmentisnecessaryforaccurate interpretationofthetestresults. TheSPTis bothadynamicpenetrationtestandamethodofobtainingdisturbedsamples. FortheSPTtest,asplit-spoonsamplerattachedtodrillsteelisdriven downwardbytheimpactofafallingweightonthesteel.

IntheSPTtest,a lb. InthePPtestmethod,a35 lbweightfallsanapproximatedistanceof IntheSPTtest,asa split-spoonsamplerisdrivendownward,itfllswithdisturbedsoil. InthePP test,nosampleisobtainedasasolid,cone-shapedtipisdrivendownwardbya fallingweight. However,thePPmethodrequiresexcavationofatesthole,and samplesshouldbeobtainedwitheachchangeinsoilstrata.

Equipment Performanceofportablepenetrometertestingrequirestwogroupsof equipment. Thefrstgroupisassociatedwithpreparationofadrilledborehole, backhoetestpit,orhand-excavatedtesthole. Thisgroupincludesthetools usedtodigthehole,withahandaugeremployedmostfrequentlyinaPPtest application. Alistofequipmentusedforexcavationofatestholewithahand augerfollows: Shovelwithpointedendforbreakingupturfandvegetationatthesurface.

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Geotechnical Design Manual: M 46-03.07 April 2012

Alicia empezaba a estar harta de seguir tanto rato sentada en la orilla, junto a su hermana, sin hacer nada, una o dos veces se habia asomado al libro que su. Alicia en el Pais de las Maravillas, existe un material con sugerencias didacticas y actividades.

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