A History of Metals in Colonial America
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View all copies of this ISBN edition:. In the struggle to create an indigenous industry, in the efforts to encourage and support the work of metals craftsmen, in the defiance of British attempts to regulate manufacturing of metals, the colonial society developed a metals technology that became the basis for future industrial growth.
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About the Author : James A. Review : "Mulholland has welded a large amount of diverse information into a fine general account. Buy New Learn more about this copy. Other Popular Editions of the Same Title. Search for all books with this author and title. Customers who bought this item also bought. Stock Image. Published by Univ of Alabama Pr.
New Quantity Available: 1. Seller Rating:. With the spread of metal tools being carried out by the Incas, it is thought [ by whom?
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In any case, as Bruhns notes, "Bronze can be seen as an expensive substitute for the equally efficient stone". Open-molded casting with oxidation gilding and cast filigrees were in use. The earliest specimen of metalwork from the Caribbean is a gold-alloy sheet carbon dated to CE. Most Caribbean metallurgy has been dated to between and CE and consists of simple, small pieces such as sheets, pendants, beads and bells. These are mostly gold or a gold alloy with copper or silver and have been found to be largely cold hammered and sand-polished alluvial nuggets, although a few items seem to have been produced by lost wax casting.
It is presumed that at least some of these items were acquired by trade from Colombia . Much like in South America, fine metals were seen as a material for the elite. Metal's special qualities of colour and resonance seemed to have appealed most and then led to the particular technological developments seen in the region. Exchange of ideas and goods with peoples from the Ecuador and Colombia region likely via a maritime route seems to have fueled early interest and development.
Similar metal artifact types are found in West Mexico and the two regions: copper rings, needles and tweezers being fabricated in the same ways as in Ecuador and also found in similar archaeological contexts.
History of Metals in Colonial America
A multitude of bells were also found, but in this case they were cast using the same lost-wax casting method as seen in Colombia. However, in general the new properties such alloys introduced were developed to meet regional needs, especially wirework bells, which at times had such high tin content in the bronze that it was irrelevant for its mechanical properties but gave the bells a golden colour. The actual artifacts and then techniques were imported from the south, but west Mexican metallurgists worked ores from the abundant local deposits; the metal was not being imported.
Even when the technology spread from West into north-eastern, central and southern Mexico, artifacts that can be traced back to West Mexican ores are abundant, if not exclusive. It is not always clear if the metal reached its final destination as an ingot, an ore or a finished artifact. Provenance studies on metal artifacts from southern Mesoamerica cast with the lost-wax technique and dissimilar to west Mexican artifacts have shown that there might have been a second point of emergence of metallurgy into Mesoamerica there since no known source could be identified.
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The Aztecs did not initially adopt metal working, even though they had acquired metal objects from other peoples. However, as conquest gained them metal working regions, the technology started to spread. By the time of the Spanish conquest, a bronze-smelting technology seemed to be nascent.
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Archaeological evidence has not revealed metal smelting or alloying of metals by pre-Columbian native peoples north of the Rio Grande ; however, they did use native copper extensively. As widely accepted as this statement might be it should not be considered synonymous with a lack of metal objects, as it points out native copper was abundant particularly in the Great Lakes region and "overlooks the simple fact that there was really very little to be gained by smelting Once the ice retreated, these were readily available for use in a variety of sizes.
There is also evidence of actual mining of copper veins Old Copper Complex , but disagreement exists as to the dates. Extraction would have been extremely difficult. Hammerstones may have been used to break off pieces small enough to be worked. This labor-intensive process might have been eased by building a fire on top of the deposit, then quickly dousing the hot rock with water, creating small cracks. This process could be repeated to create more small cracks. The copper could then be cold-hammered into shape, which would make it brittle, or hammered and heated in an annealing process to avoid this.
The final object would then have to be ground and sharpened using local sandstone. Numerous bars have also been found, possibly indicative [ original research? Progressively the usage of copper for tools decreases with more jewellery and adornments being found. This is believed to be indicative of social changes to a more hierarchical society.
History of Metals in Colonial America
However this Great Lake model as a unique source of copper and of copper technologies remaining somewhat static for over 6, years has recently come into some level of criticism, particularly since other deposits seem to have been available to ancient North Americans, even if a lot smaller. Some of the more famous of the plates are of raptorial birds and avian-themed dancing warriors. These plates, such as the Rogan plates from Etowah , the Spiro plates from the Spiro in Oklahoma, and the Wulfing cache from southeast Missouri, were instrumental in the development of the archaeological concept known as the S.
The only Mississippian culture site where a copper workshop has been located by archaeologists is Cahokia in western Illinois.
warsmulcoari.tk Numerous copper fragments as well as ashes from fires were found in the area as well as the remains of three tree stumps thought to have been used to hold anvil stones used for beating out the flattened sheets of copper. Ships with Tracking Number! May not contain Access Codes or Supplements. May be ex-library.
Buy with confidence, excellent customer service!. Seller Inventory X. Condition: New. Burnt Amber colored cloth boards Reddish brown with gilt lettering and Illust. No shelf wear. Box Seller Inventory ABE Home Mulholland, James A. A History of Metals in Colonial America. Published by Univ of Alabama Pr Tx , Seller Rating:. Available From More Booksellers.
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